The Cannabis Sativa is an annual herbaceous flowering plant. This plant has many chemical compounds that make it up and give it unique properties. The two main types of chemicals are Terpenes and Cannabinoids. Terpenes provide distinct flavors and aromas. Cannabinoids have a variety therapeutic and recreational properties. There are a confirmed 113 cannabinoids, but there are some reports that go higher to 120+ in many cases.
Cannabinoids are the chemicals which give the cannabis plant its medical and recreational properties. The two most abundant cannabinoids are THC and CBD. They interact with different receptors in the body, notably CB1 and CB2, to produce a wide variety of effects on the body.
Cannabinoids: Hemp vs Marijuana
The main difference between Hemp and Marijuana is the Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content which is the psychoactive chemical that gets you “high.” Industrial Hemp, by law, has 0.3% THC or less by volume. Marijuana can have much higher percentages. Most Hemp strands have higher Cannabidiol (CBD) amounts than Marijuana.
Cannabinoids are produced via break down of cannabigerol (CBG) and stored within the plants crystals called trichomes. These trichomes give marijuana flowers their shiny and sparkly appearance. The most abundant and well-studied cannabinoids are THC and CBD.
Endocannabinoids are cannabinoids naturally prouder in the human body. The prefix “Endo” stands for endogenous, which means originating within the body. While these cannabinoids are distinct from those produced in Cannabis, there is a crossover in properties and effects. This is because they interact with the same cannabinoid receptors in the brain and body.
Scientists believe there are many different endocannabinoids, but the most studied and understood are 2-AG and anandamide. Secondary endocannabinoids include noladin ether, virodhamine, and N-arachidonyl dopamine (NADA). The primary use of these endocannabinoids are to regulate your body in an effort to promote homeostasis.
How Do Cannabinoids Work?
In short, cannabinoids work by supplying the endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system is a system in the human body consisting of cannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors. Cannabinoids bind to cannabinoid receptors which triggers your body to react in a variety of ways. These chemicals are like programs and your mind and body are the computer system.
There are two different cannabinoid receptors: CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors are found primarily in the brain and are responsible for more mental affects such as the psychoactive effects of THC. CB2 receptors are mostly found in the rest of the body. They are responsible for a wide range of more physical functions such as regulating appetite, sleep, pain, mood, memory, and much more that are more associated with CBD and CBG.
List of Major Cannabinoids
There are too many Cannabinoids for a blog article so we will focus on the most abundant and most important ones. They are broken up into two types: Endogenous and Exogenous. Endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) are cannabinoids produced naturally within the body. Exogenous cannabinoids are cannabinoids produced outside of the body. Exogenous cannabinoids are also referred to as phytocannabinoids because they come from plants.
The first of the two major cannabinoids is Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC is the psychoactive compound most often associated with marijuana. It is one of the two most prevalent cannabinoids found in the plant. Some strands have as much as 30% THC. It is most often used for its recreational use for its ability to get the user “high” though it does have some medical uses as well. THC binds to CB1 receptors in the brain. The high resulting from THC results in a feeling of euphoria and mild hallucinations such as distortion of space and time. Medical benefits of THC include benefits is its ability to reduce nausea and vomiting plus reducing pain in certain disorders.
Side effects of THC include an increased heart rate, bloodshot eyes, dry mouth, dizziness, sedation, and impairments on cognitive and motor functions. Cognitive impairments from THC mainly include decreased concentration as well as short-term memory loss. In some cases, THC use can result in panic attacks, hallucinations, and vomiting. These effects are more common in more novice consumers and are uncommon in regular users. They are most often the result of occurring when excessive amounts are consumed.
The other major cannabinoid is cannabidiol (CBD). The medical benefits of CBD has received a lot of attention especially because of its lack of psychoactive effects. It will not get you high in any amounts. Cannabis farmers have managed to create plants that have a high level of CBD, as high as 20%, and low levels of THC, less than 0.3%. This has occurred though out many years of careful and specialize crop breeding.
Consumers of CBD benefit from a range of homeopathic remedies for various ailments. The most common ailments include headaches, depression, and muscle soreness. CBD has shown a lot of promise in helping certain forms of pediatric epilepsy, such as Dravet syndrome.
Cannabigerol (CBG) is “Mother” cannabinoid in Cannabis that acts as the foundation for all other cannabinoids. It shares a lot of properties with CBD, including being non-psychoactive. It will not get you high in any amounts. It is the greatest contender to be a third major cannabinoid player in the near future. CBG breaks down during photosynthesis to produce the other cannabinoids.
CBG itself is not very prevalent in most Cannabis strains. CBG is often occurring in concentrations of less than 1%. This cannabinoid has been found to have many therapeutic effects, including pain relief, antifungal and antibacterial effects, and neuroprotective effects.
CBN is another unique cannabinoid found in Cannabis. CBN is the product of THC that has been improperly stored in too much light or heat. The degradation of THC is usually a slow process that occurs over a long period of time. CBN may have antibacterial properties, anticonvulsant effects, and the ability to increase appetite. It may also help relieve pain and act as a sedative.
CBC is a cannabinoid that is often overlooked when discussing the benefits of Cannabis. But CBC plays an important role in effects of Cannabis on the body. In certain strands it is the second most abundant cannabinoid. It will not get you high because it is not psychoactive either. CBC is mainly an effective painkiller.
Anandamide is an endocannabinoid that is predominately found in the body. The chemical is also present in the brain, but to a lesser degree than 2-AG.Anandamide is believed to play some part in the euphoric effects of physical exercise, commonly known as the “runner’s high”.
How Steve’s Goods can Help
Steve’s Goods has a variety of full spectrum products that can supplement all your cannabinoid needs. We specialize in CBD and CBG products such as concentrates and tinctures in tasty flavors such as Blueberry or Watermelon. Our OG crumble is award winning and is defiantly worth a try. Steve’s Goods uses the finest of Colorado grown hemp from local farmers and is carefully processed for the highest-quality product. See all our options at the Steve’s Goods Shop tab!